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    Responses to stress may be important in understanding gender differences in substance use disorders and may also be a target for development of treatment interventions. A growing body of both preclinical and clinical research supports important underlying gender differences in the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and noradrenergic systems, which may contribute to drug use. Preclinical models have demonstrated increased sensitivity of females to CRF and noradrenergic-induced drug reinstatement compared with males, and, consistent with these findings, human laboratory studies have demonstrated greater sensitivity to corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and noradrenergic stimulation in cocaine-dependent women compared with men. Furthermore, neuroimaging studies have demonstrated increased neural response to stressful stimuli in cocaine-dependent women compared with men as well as showing significant sex differences in the sensitivity of brain regions responsible for regulating the response to CRH. Development of interventions targeting the noradrenergic system and stress response in drug-dependent individuals could have important clinical implications for both women and men. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


    Aimee L McRae-Clark, Angie M Cason, Amy S Kohtz, Megan Moran Santa-Maria, Gary Aston-Jones, Kathleen T Brady. Impact of gender on corticotropin-releasing factor and noradrenergic sensitivity in cocaine use disorder. Journal of neuroscience research. 2017 Jan 02;95(1-2):320-327

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    PMID: 27870396

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